You are backpacking on the Appalachian Trail through the Great Smoky Mountains National Park when one of the members of your group disturbs a yellowjacket nest and is stung numerous times on both her lower legs. While she has no history of allergies, roughly five minutes after being stung, she developed hives in her groin that quickly spread to her flanks and back. Retrieving the group first aid kit you see that the EpiPens—there are two—expired four years ago. The epinephrine appears clear with no particulate matter. The kit does not contain an oral antihistamine; however, one of the group members has hayfever, is taking Claritin daily, and has a small vial with five caplets.
What is wrong with Laura and what should you do? Click here to find out.
Don't know where to begin or what to do? Take one of our wilderness medicine courses. Guides and expedition leaders should consider taking our Wilderness First Responder course.
Looking for a reliable field reference? Consider consider purchasing one of our print or digital handbooks; our digital handbook apps are available in English, Spanish, and Japanese. Updates are free for life. A digital SOAP note app is also available.
Our public YouTube channel has educational and reference videos for many of the skills taught during our courses. Check it out!